Considering of utilizing stone in your venture? Our newest Dezeen guide consists of 15 common kinds of pure rock utilized in structure, interiors and design with hyperlinks to a whole lot of examples to encourage your personal work.
Alabaster is a smooth, fine-grained stone that has been used for hundreds of years to carve elaborate types and ornaments. Nevertheless, its solubility in water implies that it’s best fitted to indoor use.
In its pure kind, alabaster is white and translucent, which makes it ideally suited to lighting design.
Studio Tack used tubular light shades made from alabaster to softly illuminate a comfortable Japanese restaurant in New York (above), whereas lighting studio Allied Maker used the stone to create ornate totemic floor lamps.
Amarist Studio showcased the sculptural prospects of the stone in its Aqua Fossil collection, which features a espresso desk with swooping, curved legs.
Basalt is a dark-coloured igneous rock that’s fashioned when lava cools quickly. It’s most regularly used as an mixture for concrete as it’s low-cost and high-strength, however it is usually a preferred cladding and flooring materials, particularly when polished.
Examples of this embody the facade of a small gallery in Amsterdam by Barend Koolhaas and a Hawaiian holiday home by Walker Warner Architects during which slender basalt cladding tiles are contrasted with cedar detailing (above).
Icelandic studio Innriinnri used two sculpted slabs of basalt stone to create a sculptural table that doubles as a stool or a chunk of artwork, whereas South Korean artist Byung Hoon Choi polished the stone to create oversized outdoor furniture.
Flint is a extremely sturdy stone present in abundance as irregular-shaped nodules in sedimentary rocks similar to chalk. It has been used as a building materials for the reason that Roman period, although it’s not usually seen in up to date structure.
Flint varies in color, however it’s generally glassy black with a white crust. In structure, it’s normally knapped – break up to show its shiny interior face – earlier than being laid in mortar.
Skene Catling de la Peña used a mix of knapped and unknapped flint to cowl a wedge-shaped house in Buckinghamshire (above), which creates a refined color gradient throughout its facade.
Gneiss, a sturdy metamorphic stone composed of alternating layers of various colored minerals, is common to make use of for flooring and worktops. Hues can vary from pinks and golds to greens and darkish greys.
Peter Pichler sourced gray gneiss with black-and-white bands from Passeier Valley in South Tyrol to create a big counter within the bar of an Italian Alpine hotel (above).
Granite is among the most generally used stones in structure and design. It types from the sluggish crystallisation of magma beneath the Earth’s crust. It’s used for every part from load-bearing buildings to cladding, worktops and furnishings.
Its reputation is all the way down to its excessive compressive energy, sturdiness and low porosity. Granite can also be present in an array of colors, making it appropriate for a spread of areas and kinds.
Heatherwick Studio not too long ago used inexperienced granite to make a trio of its sculptural Spun chairs (above), whereas Snøhetta has used a gray selection to cover almost every surface of an Aesop store to emulate a rocky shoreline.
Structure studio NOARQ examined the fabric’s energy by elevating a cabin on thick blocks of granite over the doorway to a stone villa in Portugal.
Rusty-red laterite stone is fashioned from the leaching of rocks and soil throughout alternating intervals of excessive temperature and heavy rainfall in tropical areas. This course of leaves behind a excessive focus of insoluble iron oxides, which supplies the rock its color.
Laterite is often utilized in building in Africa and Asia within the type of bricks, which have glorious thermal mass and a low embodied power. These bricks are made by chopping the rock out from under the water desk when it’s moist and leaving it to harden within the air.
Architect Francis Kéré used regionally sourced laterite to construct the partitions of a school in Burkina Faso and Studio Lotus has used it to create the pedestal of a government building in India (above).
There are numerous several types of limestone, a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate. It’s thought of a great all-round constructing materials as it’s simple to chop and carve and normally has a uniform texture and color.
Well-liked limestone varieties embody travertine (see under) and Portland stone, which is used on notable buildings in London similar to St Paul’s Cathedral and Buckingham Palace.
David Chipperfield Architects not too long ago used limestone to clad the Kunsthaus Zurich museum extension in Switzerland and John Pawson used it to line the surfaces of a minimalist flagship store in Japan for vogue label Jil Sander.
Design initiatives that utilise limestone embody a blocky furnishings assortment referred to as Dig Where You Stand by college students from the Estonian Academy of Arts (above).
Marble is a metamorphic rock with veins of calcite crystal. It types from limestone that has been uncovered to warmth and stress and is present in many colors. Marble is robust however simply carved and polishes effectively, making it appropriate for quite a few purposes.
It’s most popularly utilized in kitchen and toilet designs, however it’s usually used as cladding too, similar to in Alexander Owen Architecture’s garden room in London (above).
Onyx is a translucent gemstone composed of parallel bands of quartz, present in nearly each color. It has a protracted historical past of use in sculpture and jewelry however is much less generally present in structure and design. Nevertheless, onyx is usually used as a going through or lighting.
Porphyry is a robust and hard-wearing igneous stone that is available in reddish-brown to purple hues. It’s composed of large-grained crystals embedded in a fine-grained groundmass.
It has been utilized in structure and design since antiquity, although it’s not often seen in up to date structure and design. Right this moment it’s largely used as mixture within the building of roads in locations the place vehicles require studded winter tires.
Shaped from sandstone uncovered to excessive warmth and stress, quartzite is a really laborious and sturdy metamorphic rock. It’s normally present in white and gray shades.
Quartzite is a well-liked materials for kitchen counter tops as it’s proof against staining, however is mostly used as an ornamental cladding or flooring.
Examples of this embody a dwelling in Utah by Klima Architecture, Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals spa (above) and a monolithic Parisian library by Agence Pascale Guédot.
Sandstone consists of effective silicate grains which have eroded from different rocks, giving it both a heat purple, yellow or orange colouration.
Used for building since prehistoric occasions, sandstone continues to be a preferred selection in structure and design as it’s plentiful, sturdy and straightforward to deal with.
Current architectural initiatives that use the fabric embody a cathedral extension by Feilden Fowles, a museum by Álvaro Siza, and an oval-shaped all-girls school in India (above) that’s designed to mix into its desert environment.
This gray fine-grained stone is among the commonest sedimentary rocks on earth. It’s fashioned from the compaction of silt and dirt into skinny, fissile layers. In structure and design, shale is normally crushed and processed into bricks, tiles and pottery, or heated with limestone to make cement.
Aketuri Architektai used shale tiles to clad a pointy woodland house in Lithuania (above), whereas Spaceworkers wrapped the stone round the basement of a Portuguese house to supply it with a uncooked, rugged aesthetic.
Slate is a darkish fine-grained stone that’s fashioned when a sedimentary rock, similar to shale, is subjected to excessive stress. It’s a foliated rock, which means it’s made up of skinny sedimentary layers, which permits it to be break up – or riven – into skinny slabs.
Slate is sturdy and weather- and frost-resistant, making it a preferred materials selection for cladding, roofing and paving.
In inside initiatives, the fabric is usually additionally used as ground tiles, hearths and kitchen worktops. Natalie Weinmann sanded and polished the stone to create a blocky furniture collection.
One of the generally used types of limestone is travertine, which has been sourced from mineral springs to be used as a constructing materials for hundreds of years. The biggest constructing on the earth constituted of this stone is the Colosseum in Rome.
Right this moment, travertine is usually processed into tiles for inner and exterior floor coverings, however it is usually a preferred materials for toilet fit-outs. As it’s discovered with troughs on its floor, processing travertine normally includes sharpening its floor.
Current common stone initiatives on Dezeen embody an inconspicuous house on the island of Serifos, a monolithic spa by Smartvoll, a set of luxury lodges on England’s Jurassic Coast and a coffee table by Studio Twenty Seven.
The primary picture is of Rajkumari Ratnavati Girls’ School by Diana Kellogg Architects taken by Vinay Panjwani.